Imaginary Axis as a Basic Morphology in the City Development of Yogyakarta - Indonesia

Wahid, Julaihi and Karsono, Bambang (2008) Imaginary Axis as a Basic Morphology in the City Development of Yogyakarta - Indonesia. In: Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Built Environement in Developing Countries 2008, Sustainable Built Environment: Bridging Theory and Practice, 3 - 4 Desember 2008, School of Housing Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang.


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The life and characteristics of the cities in Indonesia is very much influenced by that of the development in the Java Island. The influenced of Javanese cultures is not only evident in the socio-cultural aspect of daily life, government or political system, but also on the dimensions of the established institutions. It started from the beginning of the Mataram Hindu Empire, the Majapahit Empire and again the Mataram Islamic influence of the recent time. The impact of cosmology with special reference to order and orientation of the city in Indonesia is attempted to be explained in this paper. The term “axis” as a basis of morphology for creating city’s order in a traditional city of Indonesia especially in Java is analyzed with reference to the order of the ancient city of Trowulan Majapahit. This axis was influenced by the growth of religions as a cosmology orientation. Certain imaginary axis which acts as a joint connecting dimension of the various cosmic forces of the universe is believed to happen here. Apart from the city development plan, this imaginary axis is also applied in building up “road system”. An axis of the sun orbit is the common cosmic forces that affect us daily. Thus, the shapes of the traditional cities in Java and on the island of Bali is very much inclined on the order of “East – West” axis or “North-South axis”. Such dimensions of the cosmic order became a reference point and very much respect in the physical development criteria. Time and again the orientation of the buildings has been developed according to such orientation. By giving honor to the universal objects such as the cosmic forces, i.e mountains, rivers, lakes and sea, the city planning takes it shapes. This paper also delves into the concept of imaginary axis which is influenced by the shape of the elements of the traditional city in Indonesia, especially the placement of alun-alun (open space), keraton (palace) and the mosque. Conceptually, Yogyakarta has been shaped by cosmology axis which is part and parcel of the cosmic elements such as Merapi Mountain, Keraton and Southern Sea (Indian Ocean). This cosmic order is termed as Trowulan Majapahit which is known as a concept of space according to Hinduism. Keywords: imaginary axis, cosmology, basic element of the city, keraton, alun-alun, Yogyakarta.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Subjects: N Fine Arts > NA Architecture
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering > Department of Architecture Engineering
Depositing User: Bambang Karsono ST.,MT., Ph.D
Date Deposited: 29 Jan 2016 16:13
Last Modified: 29 Jan 2016 16:13

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